In this installment of "Let's Get Technical," our panel of experts review three posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) apps from the VA.

September 2020

Illustration of a phone

The National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder within the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) has a variety of free mobile apps that provide self-help and education following trauma, as well as treatment companion apps for use with a health-care provider. Our panel of experts review three of those apps to help psychologists decide if one might be a good fit for their patients.

For each app, we provide guidance on several background factors practitioners should consider when selecting mobile apps for their patients. Next, our panel of psychologists share their own ratings and reviews of the apps based on several key factors such as purpose, appropriateness of content and ease of use, and offer their own recommendations for how to use each app in practice.


PTSD Coach

PTSD Coach

Review Ratings

4
★★★★☆

5
★★★★★

CPT Coach

CPT Coach

Review Ratings

4
★★★★☆

3.5 
★★★☆☆

PE Coach

PE Coach

Review Ratings

4
★★★★☆

4
★★★★☆

Given the time of COVID-19, psychologists should be aware of the limitations of content on these and other apps that point patients to coping strategies that are simply not possible currently or are unhelpful given the changes we are all experiencing due to the pandemic. Additional resources (such as the COVID Coach app) and in-session brainstorming may be needed during this time period.
—JoAnna Romero Cartaya, PhD

PTSD Coach

PTSD Coach PTSD Coach is a free mobile app that uses evidence-based coping strategies, primarily based in cognitive behavioral therapy, and psychoeducation to manage symptoms of PTSD. It was designed for use with military veterans and the larger civilian community and may be used as an adjunct to therapy or as a stand-alone application. 


The app is divided into four main sections:
  • Information about the development of PTSD, risk factors, symptoms, and treatment approaches.
  • Tools for managing symptoms such as mindfulness, deep breathing, sleep tools and grounding.
  • Measuring progress through multiple trackers on assessment, tracking of emotions, and Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS) ratings before and after every coping strategy.
  • Crisis resources and customizable personal supports.

Overall Review Ratings

4

★★★★☆

—JoAnna Romero Cartaya, PhD

5

★★★★★

—Mary O'Leary Wiley, PhD, ABPP

Background Ratings

description
Privacy/Security

4 ★★★★☆

Features an easy to understand privacy policy. The app does not require users to submit any personal data and does not use advertising. Anonymous usage tracking is conducted to perform analytics and improve the app. However, the app settings permit data sharing to be turned off. After download, through use of the app, the user stores potentially sensitive information on their phone. No separate pin or password is required to open the app.

description
Evidence base for the app

5 ★★★★★

Several peer reviewed research studies of PTSD Coach demonstrate efficacy of the app for mild to moderate PTSD symptoms. Clinician support appears to increase the effectiveness of the app compared to self-management.

description
User feedback

4 ★★★★☆

Around 600 reviews averaging 4.5/5 stars. Predominantly high marks with only a few negative comments that are not centered around any one issue.

Panelist Ratings and Comments — JoAnna Romero Cartaya, PhD

JoAnna Romero Cartaya, PhD I recommend PTSD Coach to other psychologists for use with patients because of its empirically based content and well-done recordings for progressive muscle relaxation, breathing training, and mindfulness approaches. A recent update includes additional ways the app can be customized and content that further expands the interventions and type of symptoms the user may be trying to find support in managing. The customization of the app may assist in building discussion of natural supports, inspirational music, photos, and images. This also provides psychologists with additional ways of exploring and discovering with their patient the cultural factors, needs, and traditions that are important within the patient’s experience of trauma and salient to their recovery. Additional voices of people of color, those with disability or acquired disabilities, or those from marginalized or oppressed groups, especially in aspects of leisure activities and inspirational quotes, would also improve the overall cultural considerations that are currently lacking within this app.
—JoAnna Romero Cartaya, PhD 

description
Purpose

4 ★★★★☆

PTSD Coach provides clear, helpful, and detailed information and interventions well-tailored to its specific purpose of helping individuals learn about and manage symptoms that often occur after trauma. Users have multiple options for how they interact with the app and it is likely to appeal to those with mild to moderate symptoms of PTSD.

description
Appropriateness of Content

5 ★★★★★

The content is appropriate as a complement to therapy or for those who are considering getting additional support for their symptoms or wanting to learn more about PTSD. PTSD Coach mostly follows empirically based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches and mindfulness practices. A recent update also included use of inspirational quotes, engagement ideas, and taking a different perspective, but it is unclear whether those are based on CBT.

description
Cultural Responsiveness

3 ★★★☆☆

PTSD Coach is available in Spanish and can be adapted for those who are hearing and visually impaired. The multiple ways the app can be customized with each user’s uploaded content make it more of a culturally congruent and personal experience; however, the content remains fairly sparse on issues of diversity and cultural factors.

description
Ease of Use

4 ★★★★☆

The app is straightforward and very easy to use. Interventions can be saved as “favorites” making them much easier to find if an individual is accessing the app while in distress. Users can also link helpful contacts from their phone or any national number within the support section.

description
Functionality

5 ★★★★★

The app functioned well and no glitches or issues were observed. Once downloaded, PTSD Coach does not need internet to function. Assessment data can be exported.

description
Recommendations for use

Psychologists may wish to spend time on the app reviewing its contents, especially in preparing to share the app as a resource and to discuss their rational for recommending it. I would suggest that clinicians encourage appropriate patients to check out the app on their own and then, in session, review some of the interventions or ways to customize the app to make it a supportive adjunct to therapy. Exploring the patient’s thoughts and feelings regarding customization of the app may be important, especially in discussing the privacy and security factors both on the phone and within the app. I have asked patients to review sections of the app, especially the guided breathing, mindfulness exercises, and sleep hygiene, and to try out several coping strategies so they can easily access them during a time of distress. Using the rating scales prompts will help patients to see the usefulness of specific coping strategies. Occasionally we will revisit the app in session or assign as homework to further support the process within therapy.

Panelist Ratings and Comments — Mary O'Leary Wiley, PhD, ABPP

Mary O'Leary Wiley, PhD, ABPP I highly recommend this app. It is thorough, well-designed, and adaptable to a wide range of individuals experiencing symptoms of PTSD. The educational components are strong for both those experiencing PTSD and others in their lives. It is geared toward adults, so adaptations for children are not included, but the educational components would be appropriate for adults working with or living with children. I haven’t seen anything with this level of sophistication in a clear and easy to use app, including symptom tracking and coping skills. In spite of this, I doubt this would actually substitute for individual treatment. However, as a complementary intervention, I will be using this with patients who are experiencing PTSD.
— Mary O'Leary Wiley, PhD, ABPP

description
Purpose

5 ★★★★★

PTSD Coach is designed to be used as a stand-alone education and symptom management tool and can also be used to augment face-to-face or telehealth care from a health-care professional. There is an associated website that is focused more on military and veteran populations. The app has been well researched with positive outcomes published in several professional journals. The tools and strategies (i.e. mindfulness, deep breathing, sleep tools and grounding) are evidence-based and related specifically to PTSD treatment.

description
Appropriateness of Content

5 ★★★★★

It is clear that mental health and psychology experts were involved in the development of the material. It is exceptionally appropriate when used within a therapy context, or for individuals who are not interested in or ready for individual treatment. It is also ideal for rural populations who may not have access to individual care.

description
Cultural Responsiveness

3 ★★★☆☆

The program was developed by the U. S. Veterans Administration, and thus it is focused on American populations. It seems to be appropriate for both male and female individuals, though content is not gender specific, nor does it address nonbinary populations. Specific cultural references in terms of racial and ethnic groups are not addressed. It can be set for use in English and Spanish, and several members of the project development team were Spanish-speaking individuals.

description
Ease of Use

5 ★★★★★

The program is laid out very clearly and it is easy to navigate. The software works effectively. It is customizable to the extent that there are many choices, tools, and educational modules.

description
Functionality

4 ★★★★☆

Functionality is strong, and the internet is required only for the initial download. The program tracks symptoms over time, when requested, and offers to send reminders to complete tracking and interventions at specified periods of time.

description
Recommendations for use

I find this app to be most helpful as a source of information about the symptoms and prevalence of PTSD, and for tracking symptoms between therapy sessions with a professional. As a psychologist, I use it early in treatment to assign readings and follow up in session with discussions about what my patient has learned. Further into treatment, I use it to assist patients in tracking symptoms and seeing areas of improvement (and stuckness) emerging. I also use it throughout treatment, both in and out of session, to teach skills such as deep breathing, grounding, and body scanning, which then can be done through the app between sessions. Of course, apps such as this are most effective with patients who are able and willing to follow through on homework assignments and who are committed to learning in ways that help them. This app could also be helpful for patients who are awaiting treatment or who are not yet personally ready to seek treatment, and do not require the guidance of a mental health-care provider.

CPT Coach

CPT Coach CPT Coach is free mobile app for individuals who are participating in Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) treatment for PTSD with a professional mental health-care provider. CPT is a specific type of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) that teaches patients how to evaluate and change the upsetting thoughts they’ve experienced since their trauma.

The app contains support materials to help patients manage their treatment, including between session assignments, readings, PTSD symptom monitoring, and mobile versions of CPT worksheets.

Overall Review Ratings

4

 ★★★★☆

—Mary O'Leary Wiley, PhD, ABPP

3.5 

★★★☆☆

Kevin D. Arnold, PhD, ABPP

Background Ratings

description
Privacy/Security

3.5 ★★★☆☆

The app does not require users to submit any personal data or create an account and does not use advertising. User data can be deleted by the patient at any time. No separate pin or password is required to open the app.

The privacy policy contained within in the app is easy to understand and is the same policy used for all the VA mobile apps. This general policy mentions that anonymous usage tracking is conducted to perform analytics and improve the app but that app settings permit data sharing to be turned off, however, it is unclear how to change that setting for CPT Coach specifically. This seems to conflict with the policy available online for the CPT Coach app which states that the VA does not have access to the data and information put into the app by the patient.

description
Evidence base for the app

4 ★★★★☆

Numerous studies have found CPT to be effective in reducing symptoms of PTSD following a variety of traumatic events including child abuse, combat, rape and natural disasters, though no specific research on the app itself could be found. The app was developed by two of the authors of the CPT patient manual for military use.

description
User feedback

3 ★★★☆☆

Around 30 reviews averaging 3.8/5 stars. Biggest complaints center around the app crashing or getting stuck, and no ability to print or transmit completed assignments to their clinician.

Panelist Ratings and Comments — Mary O'Leary Wiley, PhD, ABPP

Mary O'Leary Wiley, PhD, ABPP This app would be very useful for psychologists working with patients using a strictly cognitive processing model. It provides useful readings for patients to read between sessions, and worksheets to track symptoms and thoughts. In my experience, the primary challenge of CPT is the reliance on homework and symptom tracking. But for those individuals who are motivated and able to complete such tasks in a consistent manner, the purpose and structure of the app is appropriate.
— Mary O'Leary Wiley, PhD, ABPP

description
Purpose

4 ★★★★☆

CPT Coach is meant to support individuals who are participating in Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a professional mental health provider. CPT has been shown to be efficacious for PTSD from both civilian traumas, such as sexual assaults, and for military-related traumas. By providing session assignments, worksheets, handouts, and PTSD symptoms assessments it is likely to meet its goals. It is not intended to be used as self-help without the guidance of a professional mental health healthcare provider.

description
Appropriateness of Content

5 ★★★★★

The app is very true to the structure that CPT recommends. The reading materials are quite good, and graphics are provided to clearly describe symptoms such as emotional avoidance, vivid images, and negative thoughts. A comprehensive list of strategies that people use to escape and avoid emotions is also included.

description
Cultural Responsiveness

1 ★☆☆☆

The app appears to only be available in English, and no specific references are made to gender, sexual preference, racial or ethnic differences in the experience of the patient. This is consistent with the Cognitive Processing protocol, and one would hope that these issues would be discussed with the therapist using the app with the patient.

description
Ease of Use

4 ★★★★☆

The design of the app is a bit outdated and navigation can be confusing. However, if using it with a therapist who is experienced with both cognitive processing protocols and the app itself, it should be easy to track and navigate.

description
Functionality

5 ★★★★★

Functionality is strong, though the internet is required to access it. The program includes homework assignments and provides reading material to be read between sessions. It does not appear that you can download your data.

description
Recommendations for use

As the disclaimer notes, CPT Coach should be used with the guidance of a mental health-care provider who is delivering Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT). Patients can use it to keep track of their appointments, their assigned homework, and to complete worksheets that are then discussed in treatment sessions. There are reading materials that would be fine for anyone to read, however, and patients could use these, both for themselves and to educate family members.

Panelist Ratings and Comments — Kevin D. Arnold, PhD, ABPP

Kevin D. Arnold, PhD, ABPP Psychologists who use CPT as the treatment protocol for PTSD, largely to the exclusion of more exposure-based protocols (e.g., Direct Exposure Therapy), would benefit from this app as it provides helpful support of treatment. However, if psychologists use less cognitive therapy-based approaches or employ an eclectic or modular approach, the app will have less utility. For those that use CPT, the app can take the place of paper/pencil forms and readings, although placing forms or assessments that have been completed into the provider’s chart does not appear to be an option. CPT Coach’s utility largely applies only to military contexts.
— Kevin D. Arnold, PhD, ABPP

description
Purpose

5 ★★★★★

The purpose of CPT Coach is to support the delivery of Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) by a professional therapist with military personnel. In order to do so, the app provides narrative explanations about components of CPT, examples of the use of various CPT techniques, worksheets for completion of CPT homework assignments, and on-going assessments of PTSD severity that are plottable over time.

description
Appropriateness of Content

4 ★★★★☆

The use of CPT’s main features (e.g. re-examining the traumatic event narrative, identifying stuck points, modifying extreme thinking and underlying beliefs) are all represented in the forms and readings. It is a CPT consistent app, however, it uses more directive language--such as “Practice assignments are the path to CPT success – if you don’t use them you won’t get better”--that is inconsistent with activation of the patient’s beliefs and making their own decisions to move forward.

The content is largely appropriate only for military personnel, and much of the content is aligned with combat-related traumas.

description
Cultural Responsiveness

2 ★★☆☆

The app does not appear to address cultural issues in any systematic manner. The memes used in its graphics are genderless and are white/gray. The readings do not appear to employ culturally sensitive content (e.g. gender-based stereotyped pronouns, aggression conceptualized differently across cultures). Different language versions of CPT Coach were not apparent.

description
Ease of Use

4.5 ★★★★☆

CPT Coach is remarkably easy to navigate in the iOS environment. The navigation buttons are intuitive and move from one section of the app to another without hesitation. The app is not customizable in any obvious way except for the difference between the Military Sexual Trauma (MST) versions of some components vs. the “Combat” versions. The MST versions rely less on military service as the setting or contexts for the traumas. The app also allows the user to tailor the name and phone number of their therapist.

description
Functionality

4 ★★★★☆

CPT Coach performs well and does not rely on the internet for most of its functionality. To use the “Call” function in the Next Appointment section, the app does require access to cell phone service. If personal downloading of data in the app is possible, the app fails to provide an easily identifiable way to do so.

description
Recommendations for use

CPT Coach is best used in two ways: a) as an educative tool that can augment the psychologist’s psychotherapeutic application of CPT and b) to supplement homework assignments given by the therapist. It is important to note that when using it for either or both of these purposes, the app's utility, for psychologists treating non-military or non-veterans, may be limited.

PE Coach

PE Coach PE Coach is a free mobile app to be used with psychotherapy focused on treatment of PTSD through manualized Prolonged Exposure (PE) therapy. The app follows the protocol content for PE and allows the patient to schedule and track therapy sessions—including reminders, securely record sessions, review psychoeducation/readings, complete assessment tools (i.e. PHQ-9 and PCL-5), create and monitor SUDS inventory, and practice skills learned during treatment sessions.

Overall Review Ratings

4

★★★★☆

—Charmain F. Jackman, PhD

4

★★★★☆

—JoAnna Romero Cartaya, PhD

Background Ratings

description
Privacy/Security

4 ★★★★☆

The app does not require users to submit any personal data or create an account and does not use advertising. User data can be deleted by the patient at any time. Users can easily enable a separate pin or password to be required to open the app.

The privacy policy contained within in the app is easy to understand and states that the VA does not have access to the individual data and information put into the app by the patient. However, it also links to the general mobile app policy from the VA and the general policy mentions that anonymous usage tracking is conducted to perform analytics and improve the app. It is unclear how to change that setting for PE Coach specifically. If a patient transmits or shares user data with a clinician, the provider must then comply with HIPAA rules.

description
Evidence base for the app

4 ★★★★☆

Research has shown PE to be one of the most effective treatments for PTSD. While no randomized control trials were found using PE Coach, small feasibility studies demonstrated support for users in primary care settings or receiving therapy, including higher levels of satisfaction during PE with PE Coach as compared with PE alone. The app was developed in collaboration with clinical psychologists and adheres to the protocol of PE developed by Foa, E., Hembree, E. & Rothbaum, B.

description
User feedback

3 ★★★☆☆

Around 35 reviews in the United States averaging 3.4/5 stars. User ratings are lower for those on Apple devices. Complaints are mainly due to glitches experienced during recording/replaying function.

Panelist Ratings and Comments — Charmain F. Jackman, PhD

Charmain F. Jackman, PhD PE Coach offers a simple, easy to use interface for patients who are engaged in Prolonged Exposure (PE) Therapy with a trained PE mental health professional. I would absolutely recommend this app to other mental health professionals for that purpose. PE Coach is a very practical way for patients to track homework assignments, take PCL-5 and PHQ-9 assessments, review recorded therapy sessions, practice breathing, and learn more trauma and the trauma response. It allows the user to see their data over time and has the capacity for patients to share that data with you. Having an organized tool for patients to track their progress and document their work between sessions is a valuable resource and provides an added advantage to the therapeutic experience.
—Charmain F. Jackman, PhD

description
Purpose

5 ★★★★★

PE Coach successfully supports the work that a patient is doing in-session and provides a place to document homework and review content between sessions. PE therapy is an evidence-based practice that is effective in treating PTSD and PE Coach is directly based on the PE treatment manual.

description
Appropriateness of Content

5 ★★★★★

The app clearly outlines the PE treatment model and includes background readings that explain trauma, avoidance behaviors, arousal, and feelings associated with trauma; the SUDS hierarchy, and a breathing tool. The content is appropriate and consistent with PE. The project team and subject matter experts include psychologists, experts in PTSD treatment, and one of the authors of the PE Treatment Manual.

description
Cultural Responsiveness

3 ★★★☆☆

PE Coach is only available in English. It is text-heavy and has very few graphics. However, the app was not designed for the general public and its simplicity will be appealing to those who are not digital natives or those who prefer low tech apps. On the other hand, I imagine that adolescents and young adults may not find it as engaging.

description
Ease of Use

5 ★★★★★

It is easy to use. The main menu has graphics that highlight each section and navigation steps are clearly labeled. Patients can take the PCL-5 and the PHQ-9 right on the app. PE Coach also has a great tool for patients to practice their breathing technique between sessions.

description
Functionality

4 ★★★★☆

Overall, PE Coach seems to perform well. Most functions are available offline, but you will need an internet connection to export the data to your email. I had trouble exporting my data as the app would crash. However, it is a valuable resource for patients to document SUDS rating between sessions and to listen to recorded sessions.

description
Recommendations for use

PE Coach is for individuals who are working with a therapist using PE treatment and can be used to increase communication between the patient and therapist between sessions and during sessions. I would ask patients to use PE Coach to track their homework assignments, take PCL-5 and PHQ-9 assessments, review our recorded therapy sessions, practice their breathing, and review educational sections to learn more about trauma and the trauma response.

Panelist Ratings and Comments — JoAnna Romero Cartaya, PhD

JoAnna Romero Cartaya, PhD In my practice, I have been using PE Coach more frequently since working remotely during COVID as it has streamlined my ability to engage in manualized PE treatment by reducing the need to send worksheets to patients through document sharing. The app provides opportunities to review and update SUDS lists in the moment with the patient on the patient’s phone. I would recommend use of PE Coach, but would encourage psychologists using the app to provide patients with additional supportive material regarding the impact of cultural and diversity factors within treatment. Furthermore, to use this app, patients will need to have their phone available at every session and would need to have access to that phone in order to engage in homework completion. It is best used with patients who enjoy engaging and are comfortable using apps on their phone.
—JoAnna Romero Cartaya, PhD

description
Purpose

5 ★★★★★

PE Coach is designed to be used during sessions and in-between sessions of psychotherapy focused on treatment of PTSD through manualized Prolonged Exposure (PE) therapy. The app specifically follows content per the protocol of PE and, as such, does appear to follow and support its claim as an app for use in therapy of PE.

description
Appropriateness of Content

5 ★★★★★

The content on the app is focused on the target population (i.e. those who are undergoing treatment by a trained PE provider for PTSD) and adheres to the protocol of PE. It was developed as a collaborative effort between the VA’s National Center for PTSD, the Department of Defense’s DHA Connected Health and Center for Deployment Psychology. Clinical psychologists who provide treatment of trauma using PE were a part of the team in the development of the app.

description
Cultural Responsiveness

2 ★★☆☆☆

The app and general protocol of PE does not explicitly address matters of cultural considerations within use of PE Coach and this information was not available online at the time of the review; however, clinicians will need to tailor the content and interventions of treatment to the patient and potential impacts of cultural factors in the expression and experience of PTSD symptoms.

description
Ease of Use

4 ★★★★☆

The app is straightforward and will be especially familiar to psychologists who are trained in PE. The VA provides a Clinicians Guide on how to use the application for both Android and iPhone that also provides an outline of each session within the mobile application through the final scheduled session.

The app is also easy for patients to navigate but has very limited customization options.

description
Functionality

5 ★★★★★

PE Coach performs well, and I have not experienced any issues with it. The app works without internet and when in airplane mode. Data can be exported to a secure personal email and can also be erased within the app. This app does not replicate the recordings to other apps (e.g. Amazon music) or when downloading information off of a phone that other phone app recorders may automatically do.

description
Recommendations for use

I would recommend that this app only be used within the context of a therapy relationship and that the patient and psychologist actively use the app within the session in addition to patient use between sessions. It is helpful to spend time in session providing an overview of the app and of the resources available. Clinicians may also find it useful to assist the patient in setting up the application and reviewing privacy and data settings. During sessions, patients can use the app to record and to create content within the app such as SUDS list and to review in vivo exposure sessions and progress. While the app can export information over email, I have asked patients to share information on the app through our discussions rather than send me the information from their phone. I have also assigned readings within the app and have supplemented psychoeducational readings.

Background Ratings Key

(categories rated from 1-5, with 5 being the most positive score)


Privacy/Security If applicable, do the creators acknowledge that providers need to be HIPAA compliant? Is there a privacy policy? Is data collected, stored, shared? Is data de-identified? Can you opt out? Is there a security policy? Data encryption? 1- HIPAA relevant and ignored, no privacy policy etc.; 5- Highest levels of privacy and security
Evidence Base Is there any research support for the product? Is it peer-reviewed? Between-group design experiments? Who provided the funding for the research? 1- No research evidence; 5- Ample research evidence
User Feedback What are current user feedback/ratings? 1- Very negative reviews; 5- Very positive reviews

Psychologist Panel Review Ratings Key

(categories rated from 1-5, with 5 being the most positive score)


Purpose What is the proposed intervention or what does it claim to do? Is it likely to do what it claims? 1-Highly unlikely; 5- Highly likely
Appropriateness of Content Is the content appropriate? Does the content match the description and purpose? Were any clinical/psychology experts involved in the development of the material? 1- Very inappropriate; 5- Highly appropriate
Cultural Responsiveness Did the app/software consider a variety/range of cultural factors (e.g., age, race, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, ability levels) in the development? Is the app/software likely to appeal to people from different cultural backgrounds? Is it available in multiple languages? 1- Very unresponsive; 5- very responsive
Ease of Use Is it easy to navigate? Is it customizable? 1- Very difficult; 5- Very easy
Functionality Does it perform well? Does it need the internet to work? Can you export/download your data? 1- Very poor; 5- Very well
Overall Rating Would you recommend this app to other psychologists? How often would you use or ask a client to use this app? What is your overall rating of this app? 1- Strongly do not recommend; 5- Strongly recommend

Applications reviewed July 2020


This column discusses various software and applications available to psychologists for their professional use. The views expressed in this column are the views of the authors and do not reflect the views of the American Psychological Association (APA) or any of its divisions or subunits. All authors have no financial interests in the apps or software discussed. APA does not recommend or endorse any practitioners, products, procedures, opinions or other information that may be mentioned in this column; those who use these applications or products do so at their own risk.  Please send updates and feedback about apps to Office of Health Care Innovation Staff.

Date created: September 2020